Home sewage system


House wastewater enters septic tank; septic tank system will allow any house to use water facilities as normal condition through biological or natural process and drainage technology to treat wastewater from bathroom, kitchen drain laundry and any other household plumbing, it is also underground watertight container which separates floatable matter and solids from the wastewater through process solids are held in the septic tank and liquids are transmit to the final soil treatment place, The process designed the liquid (known as effluent) discharged from the septic tank into a buried pipes in a leach field and the solids slowly release the effluent into the soil or drain field, homes that have poor drainage system or not connected properly to the septic tanks affects the environment, hence a home sewage system should be designed and installed properly after that the system will function with good durability and minimum of maintenance. 

Septic tanks function connected with inlet and outlet pipes, the inlet pipe used to carry and transfer the waste water from the household to the septic tank the solid and liquid wastes also separated here, the outlet pipe move out the processed waste from the septic to the drain field, which mean this process follows; 

the waste from the house goes to septic started to process underground, the solids grasp long enough in the tank and the sludge settle to the bottom this process let exit the liquid wastewater through pipes from the tank to the drain field, finally the waste water percolates to the drain field and the soil naturally remove bacteria and harmful effects, in general septic tank provides the following three important functions 

  • Removal of solids: the solids are preserving in the tank and the clarified effluent and separate and dissolve the solid waste 
  • Bacterial decomposition: the solids and the liquids in the tank are partially decomposed by bacteria and other natural processes
  • Sludge and scum storage: sludge is the accumulation of solids at the bottom of the tank, as scum is a partially submerged mat of floating solids that may form at or near the surface

The sewage disposal system chain looks also as follows the house plumbing, the pipe line from house to septic tank, the septic tank by itself, the septic tank outlet sewer pipe, and the final soil treatment unit, It will be important to fulfill these requirements for the successful sewage treatment . 

According to the above mentioned points we can see the septic tank has three distinct layers,  

  • The top layer part floating the scum or cooking fats, oils, and soap because these items decomposition are lighter than water as a result floating on the top
  • A middle liquid zone, the liquid discharged called effluent this liquid keep on in the middle part of the tank and known liquid zone and must be delivered to a properly designed and constructed drain field for 
  • A bottom layer of sludge, this shows the bottom settled solids part of the tank and bacterial action partially decomposes the solids

Types of septic tank and the materials made of 

Septic tanks can be constructed from Concrete, Fiberglass, or Plastic materials and   relatively simple design let as see these designs and how they used 

Concrete septic tanks

Concrete septic tanks provide lasts many years wastewater solution effectively, according to their design and size the system requires ongoing maintenance and scheduled pump draining because while the liquid drains over time solid mater and floating materials remain in the tank this needs regular maintenance, with proper maintenance and regular draining, a concrete septic tank lasting for long time but it is un affordable. 


Fiberglass is one of the best materials with high resistance of chemical and biological effects, in addition, highly durable, lighter in weight, survived from corrosion, non flammable water infiltration and easier to repair than concrete tanks, fiberglass has a strong external featured to resist elements like sunlight, humidity and rain fiberglass tanks, which are made of fiber-reinforced plastics and Boron Ethoxide, which possess a high chemical resistance and thermal properties, with proper maintenance fiberglass tanks can sustain around 40 years. 

Plastic septic tanks

Plastic septic tanks are also popular models very economical, extremely light in weight because plastic tanks made of polyethylene plastic, they are also rust-resistant, more hygienic, and due to their light characteristics their installation involves installing anchoring systems to prevent floating, this type of tanks cannot resist heavy weight and can be easily cracked, plastic tanks are also sensitive to the environment and requires frequent maintenance. 

There are several factors to put into consideration when choosing septic tanks, knowing their pros and cons will help you select which suits your home and fits your budget. 

Pros of septic tank

a septic tank with cheap installation, coast effective, durable environmentally friendly the septic tanks do not contaminate with water supply and they remove bacteria before the waste water is released in addition the recycled water is absorbed by plant life.  

Cons of septic tank

required regular maintenance because the septic lines can be clogged by solids easily, also the pipes possibly cracks, slow sink and tub draining, as well as slow-flushing toilets therefore the ruptured pipe should be replaced as soon as possible. 

Measures we need to take for safety of the tank 

It will be very important to make sure everything is functioning appropriately which mean you should inspect the situation of the tank regularly, a serious attention should be to the drain field, or leach field, where the effluent flows to outside the tank?, be careful what you put down the drain, leaks, ruptured and clogged pipes, and a flooded, it is very important to recognize signs of potential problem, things like unusual odors, odd plumbing sounds, slow drainage and backflow into your drains are all signs you need your septic tank inspected, pump out solids from the tank periodically if they are not removed this leads to drain field plugging and drain field failure. 

Finally homeowners should take precautions with septic tank, they have to ensure their tank does not affect the environment for example, if there is a crack of pipes the drain field is overloaded with too much liquid, it can flood, causing sewage to flow to the ground surface or create backups in toilets and sinks, in addition unpleasant smell and contains disease-causing organisms, pollutions and public health problems can be occurred therefore you should inspect the tank situation regularly.